Hello friends!!!!! How are you? I know you can feel better and good. Biology is the study of plant and animal. Guys we have to know that what is the botany??so,botany is the branch of biology which deals with study of physiology, plant structure and Economic importance of plants. Many plants are found in our earth Fungi is the largest plant group of earth . What is the fungi?.
The fungi are characterised by non-motile bodies (thalli) constructed of apically elongated walled filaments(hyphae)
The organism from fungal family include rusts, Smuts, puffballs,truffles, morels, molds, yeasts, etc.
- Fungi are found in a enormous diversity of habitats.
- The habitats provide a detailed understanding of How fungi organise their growth, sporulation , disperal and colonisation.
- Some exquisitely complicated interaction have evolved indicating enormous periods of coevolution between fungs and their parterners be they living or dead.
- Fungi can be easily extracted from soil, the air , plants , animals,and less easily from water.
- available nutrients represent for short periods of time in a limited zone .
- fungi metabolise and grow very slowly utilising a range of recalcitrant organic molecule.
- The concentration of microbes is greatest close to the surface of roots where exudates from the roots supply a source of organic energy.
- Always from roots ,the remains of plants and microbes are primary source of energy.
- These have been composed and degraded usually very rapidly. Leaving modified waxes , lignin and other complex molecule behind .
The lifestyles adopted by fungi in soil fall into three types : ruderals, mycorrhizal fungi and hyphal from..
- ruderals takes advantage of the flashes of nutrients usually associated with rainfall.
- water moving through soil carriers with it dissolved organic molecule flashed from plant surfaces, surface litters and microbes.
- fungi respond immediately and grow actively while remain moist.
- fungi sporulate rapidly and exist through dry periods as asexual spores.
- It includes Absidia, Aspergillus,chaetomium, fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, and penicillium.
- fungi are commonly isolated from soil using soil dilution techniques.
- Mycorrhizal fungi exist almost entirely by tapping into roots of plants for their organic energy.
- fungi are extremely common in soil, though quantification of the fungi is extremely difficult.
- up to 5 m of living hyphae of arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi can be extracted from 1g soil.
- The life styles of mycorrhizal fungi is however much more stable while ever the host is a alive .
- fungi have organic carbon and their proliferation is comparatively measured.
- Fungi probably simple organic molecule that are a suitable source of carbon for some microbes.
- hyphal form
- fungi exist as hyphae in the soil.spores of fungi are extremely difficult to find in soil and some may never sporulate.
- some fungi have potential to cause diseases it is likely that for much of their life cycle,these organisms metabolise and grow slowly .
- hyphal fungi associated with organic fragments which they slowly degrade.
- fungi can grow rapidly utilising a wide range of sources of complex carbon.
- fungi exhibits some characteristics of combative and stress tolerant fungi .
- fungi plays important role in soil degrading the complex sources of organic carbon.
- It shows result that little organic carbon remains in soil .
- The plant as a host for fungi
- .The most readily and widely available source of organic carbon is the plant .
- plant photosynthesis or have access to photosynthates , plant are not a homogeneous or uniform group of organism .
- Very attractive to saprotrophs plants area highly diverse kingdom with different approach to their interactions with fungi.
- Defences have been categorised as generalised including tannins and lignin and induced including phytoalexin.
- carbon based defences are more common in poor soil while nitrogen based defenced are more frequently found in plant growing in rich soil.