Hello friends!!!!!  How are you?  I know  you can  feel better and good.  Biology is the study of plant and animal.  Guys we have to know that what is the botany??so,botany is the branch of biology which deals with study of physiology,  plant structure  and Economic importance  of plants. Many plants are found in our earth  Fungi  is the largest plant group of earth  . What is the fungi?.
The fungi are characterised  by non-motile bodies (thalli) constructed  of apically elongated walled filaments(hyphae)
The organism from fungal family  include   rusts, Smuts, puffballs,truffles, morels, molds, yeasts, etc.


  1.   Fungi  are found in a enormous diversity of habitats.
  2. The habitats provide a detailed understanding of How fungi organise their growth, sporulation , disperal and colonisation.
  3. Some exquisitely complicated interaction have evolved indicating enormous periods of coevolution between fungs and  their parterners be they living or dead.
  4. Fungi can  be easily extracted from soil, the air , plants , animals,and  less easily from water.

Soil fungi

  1. available nutrients represent for short periods of time in a limited zone .
  2. fungi metabolise and grow very slowly utilising  a range of recalcitrant organic molecule.
  3. The concentration of microbes is greatest close to the surface of roots where exudates from the roots supply a source of organic energy.
  4. Always from  roots ,the remains of plants and microbes are  primary source of energy.
  5. These have been composed and  degraded usually very rapidly. Leaving modified waxes , lignin and other complex molecule behind .

Life styles

The lifestyles adopted by fungi in soil fall into three types : ruderals, mycorrhizal fungi and hyphal from..

  • Ruderals
  1. ruderals takes advantage of the flashes of  nutrients usually associated with rainfall.
  2. water moving through soil carriers with it dissolved organic molecule flashed from plant surfaces, surface litters and microbes.
  3. fungi  respond immediately and grow actively while  remain moist.
  4. fungi sporulate rapidly and exist through dry periods as asexual spores.
  5. It  includes  Absidia, Aspergillus,chaetomium, fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, and penicillium.
  6. fungi are commonly isolated from soil using soil dilution techniques.
  • Mycorrhizal
  1. Mycorrhizal fungi exist almost entirely by tapping into  roots of plants for their organic energy.
  2. fungi are extremely common in soil, though quantification of the fungi is extremely difficult.
  3. up to 5 m of living hyphae of arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi can be extracted from 1g soil.
  4. The life styles of mycorrhizal fungi  is however much more stable while ever the host is a alive .
  5. fungi have  organic carbon and their proliferation is comparatively measured.
  6. Fungi probably simple organic molecule that are  a suitable source of carbon for some microbes.
  • hyphal form
  1. fungi exist as hyphae in the soil.spores of  fungi are extremely difficult to find in soil and some may never  sporulate.
  2. some fungi have   potential to  cause diseases it  is likely that for much of their life cycle,these organisms metabolise and grow slowly .
  3. hyphal fungi associated with organic fragments which they slowly degrade.
  4. fungi can grow rapidly utilising a wide range of sources of complex carbon.
  5. fungi exhibits  some characteristics of  combative and stress tolerant fungi .
  6. fungi plays  important role in soil  degrading the complex sources  of organic carbon.
  7. It shows result that little organic  carbon  remains in soil .
  • The plant as a host for fungi
  1. .The most readily and widely available source of organic carbon is the plant .
  2. plant photosynthesis or have access to  photosynthates , plant are not a homogeneous  or uniform group of organism .
  3. Very attractive to  saprotrophs  plants area highly diverse kingdom with different  approach to their interactions with fungi.
  4. Defences have been categorised  as generalised including tannins and lignin and induced including phytoalexin.
  5. carbon based defences are more  common in poor soil while nitrogen based  defenced are more  frequently found in plant growing in rich soil.

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